Technological advances like Geographical Information System (GIS) and all kinds of location-based services like GPS have brought tremendous change in the lifestyle of people especially the way we communicate. The growing number of mobile phone and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) users with Internet enable us to access real-time information from anywhere in the world. The information and communication technology is a combination of different technologies and hence are interlinked with each other.
Geographical Information System or GIS is technology used for collecting, store, analyzing, editing all kinds data related to earth. So it provides answers to all kinds of queries associated with geographic information science and is now widely used in planning, resource management, asset management, transportation, environmental science and scientific observation.
Location Based Services (LBS) on the other hand is the information service accessible through the cellular network in mobile phones or other PDA devices utilizing the ability of GIS and its database. So LBS is a combination of GIS and mobile telecommunication system. The concept of location service is not new as it has been used form a very long time with the help of personal notes, graphs and posters like traffic signs but these are only a one way medium. However, LBS offers a two-way communication system between user and service provider.
All kinds of location service allows user to present his/her actual information need, position and preference. Then, by taking help of the GIS database and telecommunication technology, the service provider delivers information according to the need of the user. LBS service answers some general questions about the place with geographical information and the most convenient way to go there.
But both GIS and LBS have different origins each having special kinds of user groups. GIS is much older and evolved with the application of geographic data obtained from earth orbiting satellites. It requires extensive computing resources but has been offering a wide range of functionality. Whereas LBS was originated recently by the development of mobile devices and it is more popular among individual user rather professional organization.
Hence, LBS has its origin in GIS and is an intersection of different technologies including GIS, mobile Internet and telecommunication. So Geographical Information System is an inseparable part of Location Based Service like Global Positioning System (GPS), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and location enabled Wi-Fi.
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