Hibernate One to Many Self Join using Annotations

In this section, you will learn one to many self join using Annotations in Hibernate.

Hibernate One to Many Self Join using Annotations

Hibernate One to Many Self Join using Annotations

In this section, you will learn one to many self join using Annotations in Hibernate.

In self join, the table is mapped to itself. Means two field of a table is involved in this mapping. For example in the below figure, contractor_id and labour_id have one to many relationship. The relationship is as follows : many labors are headed by a contractor. But contractor is also one of the labour(senior labour). That's why it is mentioned in labour table.


The project hierarchy is given below :

Database table query :

The query used to create a labour table is given below :

CREATE TABLE `labour` ( 
`labour_id` bigint(10) NOT NULL auto_increment, 
`firstname` varchar(40) default NULL, 
`lastname` varchar(40) default NULL, 
`contractor_id` bigint(10) default NULL, 
PRIMARY KEY (`labour_id`), 
KEY `labour_id` (`labour_id`), 
KEY `FK_labour` (`contractor_id`), 
CONSTRAINT `FK_labour` FOREIGN KEY (`contractor_id`) REFERENCES `labour` (`labour_id`) 


hibernate.cfg.xml( /src/hibernate.cfg.xml )

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-configuration PUBLIC
"-//Hibernate/Hibernate Configuration DTD 3.0//EN"

<!-- Database connection settings -->
<property name="connection.driver_class">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>
<property name="connection.url">jdbc:mysql://</property>
<property name="connection.username">root</property>
<property name="connection.password">root</property>

<property name="connection.pool_size">1</property>
<property name="dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</property>
<property name="current_session_context_class">thread</property>
<property name="cache.provider_class">org.hibernate.cache.NoCacheProvider</property>
<property name="show_sql">true</property>
<property name="hbm2ddl.auto">validate</property>

<mapping class="net.roseindia.Labour" />


Labour.java( /src/net/roseindia/Labour.java )

package net.roseindia;

import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.persistence.CascadeType;
import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.JoinColumn;
import javax.persistence.ManyToOne;
import javax.persistence.OneToMany;
import javax.persistence.Table;

@Table(name = "labour")
public class Labour {
@Column(name = "labour_id")
private Long labourId;

@Column(name = "firstname")
private String firstname;

@Column(name = "lastname")
private String lastname;

@ManyToOne(cascade = { CascadeType.ALL })
@JoinColumn(name = "contractor_id")
private Labour contractor;

@OneToMany(mappedBy = "contractor")
private Set<Labour> subordinates = new HashSet<Labour>();

public Labour(String firstname, String lastname) {
this.firstname = firstname;
this.lastname = lastname;

public Long getLabourId() {
return labourId;

public void setLabourId(Long labourId) {
this.labourId = labourId;

public String getFirstname() {
return firstname;

public void setFirstname(String firstname) {
this.firstname = firstname;

public String getLastname() {
return lastname;

public void setLastname(String lastname) {
this.lastname = lastname;

public Labour getContractor() {
return contractor;

public void setContractor(Labour contractor) {
this.contractor = contractor;

public Set<Labour> getSubordinates() {
return subordinates;

public void setSubordinates(Set<Labour> subordinates) {
this.subordinates = subordinates;

ManageLabour.java( /src/net/roseindia/ManageLabour.java)

package net.roseindia;

import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;
import org.hibernate.service.ServiceRegistry;
import org.hibernate.service.ServiceRegistryBuilder;

public class ManageLabour {
private static SessionFactory sf;
private static ServiceRegistry serviceRegistry;

public static void main(String[] args) {
try {
Configuration configuration = new Configuration();
serviceRegistry = new ServiceRegistryBuilder().applySettings(
sf = configuration.buildSessionFactory(serviceRegistry);
} catch (Throwable ex) {
System.err.println("Failed to create sessionFactory object." + ex);
throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex);
System.out.println("**********Hibernate One to many Self Join Example**********");
Session session = sf.openSession();

Labour contractor = new Labour("Abay", "Singh");

Labour labour1 = new Labour("Shambhu", "Dayal");
Labour labour2 = new Labour("Ram", "Narayan");





After executing ManageLabour class, you will get the following output in console :

**********Hibernate One to many Self Join Example**********
Hibernate: insert into labour (contractor_id, firstname, lastname) values (?, ?, ?)
Hibernate: insert into labour (contractor_id, firstname, lastname) values (?, ?, ?)
Hibernate: insert into labour (contractor_id, firstname, lastname) values (?, ?, ?)

In labour table, you will get the following records :

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