Everyone who has love for this monument must want the basic knowledge about the structure of Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal is the well-designed example of the art of Mughal architecture; it is a style that merges the elements from Persian, Indian and Islamic styles of architecture. The Taj Mahal was constructed to a board of entrusted architecture under the royally supervision; it includes the principle designers Makramat Khan, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri and Abd-ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan.
The construction of Taj Mahal was started in 1632 that tells the story of great emperor prosperity and love for his wife. The Principal building of Taj Mahal was completed in 1648, but the gardens and the buildings that surround the Taj Mahal were built five years after the completion of Taj Mahal. Emperor himself has too much affiliation with Taj Mahal so he described the Taj Mahal in his own words.
To enhance the beauty of this Mughal building Shah Jahan promotes the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones instead of red sand stone. The building of Taj Mahal under his support touches new levels of modification.
The main part of the Taj Mahal is the tomb. Tomb stands on square symmetrical platform with an arch-shaped doorway, with a large top dome and finial. The foot structure of Taj Mahal is multi-chambered, large cube with chamfered corners; it forms an unequal octagonal structure. On each long side of the octagonal a large pishtaq that frames the iwan, that have two similar created, arched balconies heaped on each side. This design of heaped pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered areas, in this way the design makes a look of complete symmetry of the Taj Mahal. The tomb was framed by four minarets that are situated at each corner of the platform. These minarets are facing towards the chamfered corners. The false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan houses in the main chamber; but the actual graves are present at a lower level of this main chamber.
The most stunning characteristic of Taj Mahal is the marble dome that overcomes the tomb. It height is about 35 meters (115 ft), equal to the length of the base and it is emphasized as it sits on a cylindrical drum (7 meter high). According to its shape the dome have different common names, such as Onion dome or Guava dome. The top of the dome is decorated with a lotus design that serves to emphasize the height of dome. The four smaller domes highlight the shape of the dome. They also designed like the onion or guava as the main dome. They have columned open bases through roof of the tomb. From these open bases light is provided to the internal areas. Tall ornamental spires are extended from the base wall edges with motif of lotus in them. The chattris and dome are crowned by gold painted finial. Originally the main finial was made by gold but in the early 19th century gold was replaced by the copy of gold painted bronze. The finial is crowned by the Islamic motif moon, the moon pointed towards the heaven.
Another most important feature of the Taj Mahal is the minarets; each of them is 40 meters high. These minarets show that the designer is fond of regularity or symmetry. They are just like the minarets of the traditional mosque, as used by muezzin to call for prayer. Each minaret is divided into three equal parts by two balconies. These working balconies ringed the tower. Top of the tower is like the chattri that reflects the design of those on the tomb.
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