Servlets are Java technology?s answer to Common Gateway Interface (CGI) programming.
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The Servlets and
JavaServer pages Servlets are Java technology?s answer to Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
programming. They are programs that run on a Web server, acting as a middle layer between a request coming from a Web browser or other HTTP client and databases or applications on the HTTP server. Their job is to:-
* Read any data sent by the user:-This data is usually entered in a form on a Web page, but could
also come from a Java applet or a custom HTTP client program.
* Look up any other information about the request that is
embedded in the HTTP request :- This information includes details about browser capabilities,
cookies, the host name of the requesting client, and so forth.
First Servlets The previous chapter showed you how to install the software you need and how to set up your development environment. Now you want to really write a few servlets. Good. This chapter shows you how, outlining the structure that almost all servlets follow, walking you through the steps required to compile and execute a servlet, and giving details on how servlets
are initialized and when the various methods are called. A browser generates this request when the user types a URL on the
address line, follows a link from a Web page, or submits an HTML form that does not specify a METHOD. Servlets can also very easily handle POST requests,
which are generated when someone submits an HTML form that specifies METHOD="POST".
JSP Scripting Elements
JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology enables you to mix regular, static HTML with dynamically generated content from servlets. You simply
write the regular HTML in the normal manner, using familiar Web-page-building tools.
Separating the static HTML from the dynamic content provides a number of benefits over servlets alone, and the approach used in JavaServer Pages
offers several advantages over competing technologies such as ASP, PHP, or ColdFusion. Section 1.4
gives some details on these advantages, but they basically boil down to two facts: that JSP is widely supported
and thus doesn?t lock you into a particular operating system or Web server and that JSP gives you full access to servlet and Java technology for the
dynamic part, rather than requiring you to use an unfamiliar and weaker special-purpose language.
The Developing XML solutions with
JSP Technology XML is a set of syntax rules and guidelines for defining text-based markup languages. XML languages have a number of uses
including: * Exchanging information * Defining document types * Specifying messages
Information that is expressed in a structured, text-based format can easily be
transmitted between, transformed, and interpreted by entities that understand the
structure. In this way XML brings the same cross-platform benefits to information
exchange as the JavaTM programming language has for processing. JavaServer PagesTM (JSPTM) technology provides specification and serving of
documents that combine static markup language elements and elements created dynamically by Java programming language objects.
Tag Libraries JSP 1.1 introduced an extremely valuable new capability: the ability to define your own JSP tags. You define how the tag, its attributes, and its
body are interpreted, then group your tags into collections called tag libraries
that can be used in any number of JSP files. The ability to define tag libraries in this way permits Java developers to boil down complex
server-side behaviors into simple and easy-to-use elements that content developers can easily incorporate into their JSP pages.
Custom tags accomplish some of the same goals as beans that are accessed with
jsp:useBean - encapsulating complex behaviors into simple and accessible forms. There are several
differences, however. First, beans cannot manipulate JSP content; custom tags can. Second, complex operations can be reduced to a significantly simpler
form with custom tags than with beans. Third, custom tags require quite a bit more work to set up than do beans. Fourth, beans are often defined in
one servlet and then used in a different servlet or JSP page whereas custom tags usually define more
self-contained behavior. Finally, custom tags are available only in JSP 1.1, but
beans can be used in both JSP 1.0 and 1.1.
Using the JavaBeans with JSP The JavaBeans API provides a standard format for Java classes. Visual manipulation tools and other programs can automatically discover
information about classes that follow this format and can then create and manipulate the classes without the user having to explicitly write any code.
Full coverage of JavaBeans is beyond the scope of this book. The jsp:useBean action lets you load a bean to be used in the JSP page.
Beans provide a very useful capability because they let you exploit the reusability
of Java classes without sacrificing the convenience that JSP adds over servlets alone.
The simplest syntax for specifying that a bean should be used is: <jsp:useBean id="name" class="package.Class" />
The free servlet and JSP Books Slides and exercises from Marty Hall's world-renowned live training courses are now available online. The materials on this page are based on the first edition of Marty's book Core Servlets and JavaServer Pages and have been tested by Marty in live courses in the US, Canada, Australia, Puerto Rico, Japan, and the Philippines. See the training materials home page for slides based on More Servlets and JavaServer Pages, Core Web Programming, the second edition of Core Servlets and JavaServer Pages, and online tutorials and conference talks on servlets, JSP, JSTL, Apache Struts, and JSF. Materials in Japanese also available.
The HTML and PDF versions of the slides are freely available to anyone for personal use. These versions contain the complete text of the PowerPoint slides, and are what you want if your goal is to learn or review the technology.
The advanced servlet and JSP Tutorial The advanced servlet and JSP tutorials on this page are based on Marty's book More Servlets and JavaServer Pages, and have been tested by Marty in live training courses in the US, Canada, Australia, Puerto Rico, Japan, and the Philippines.
The PDF versions of the tutorials are freely available to anyone for personal use. These versions contain the complete text of the PowerPoint slides, and are what you want if your goal is to learn or review the technology. As a courtesy, coreservlets.com also makes the original PowerPoint slides available to faculty teaching courses that do not compete with Marty's live courses.