Validations using Struts 2 Annotations

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Validations using Struts 2 Annotations

Validations using Struts 2 Annotations


Validating Struts 2 Login Application using Annotations
In this section we are going to validate our login application using Annotations in Action class. Our current login application does not validate the user against the database. Instead login name and passwords are validated against the hardcode values (User: Admin and Password: Admin) in the actions class.

Working of the application

  1. Login page is displayed to take the inputs.
  2. User enters user name and password and then clicks on the "Login" button.
  3. User validation is done in action class and if user enters Admin/Admin in the user name/password fields, then success pages is displayed. Otherwise the error message is displayed on the screen.

Steps to develop the application

Here are simple and easy steps to develop Login page in the using Struts 2 framework.

  1. Develop Login Form
    The GUI of the application consists of login form (log-in.jsp) and success message page (loginsuccess.jsp) .
    The log-in.jsp is used to display the login page to the user. In our application it is saved in "webapps\struts2tutorial\pages\" folder. Here is the code of log-in.jsp file:

    <%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags" %>
    <title>Struts 2 Login Application!</title>

    <link href="<s:url value="/css/main.css"/>" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>


    <s:form action="AnnotationAction" method="POST" validate="true">
    <td colspan="2">


       <td colspan="2">
       <s:actionerror />
       <s:fielderror />

    <s:textfield name="username" label="Login name"/>
    <s:password name="password" label="Password"/>
    <s:submit value="Login" align="center"/>




    The code :
    <s:actionerror />
    <s:fielderror />

    displays action errors and field validation errors.

    The code <s:form action="AnnotationAction" method="POST" validate="true"> generates the html form for the application.

    The code :
    <s:textfield name="username" label="Login name"/>
    <s:password name="password" label="Password"/>

    generates Login Name and Password fields.

    The submit button is generated through <s:submit value="Login" align="center"/> code.

    The loginsuccess.jsp page displays the Login Success message when user is authenticated successfully. Here is the code of loginsuccess.jsp file:



    <title>Login Success</title>



    <p align="center"><font color="#000080" size="5">Login Successful</font></p>





  2. Developing Action class (using Annotations to  validate Login forms)
    Now let's develop the action class to handle the login request. The Struts 2 framework provides a base ActionSupport class to implement commonly used interfaces. In our action class ( we have extended ActionSupport class and imported the com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.annotations package
    For validating the login application java script can be added to the jsp page or in action class, but Struts 2 provides another very easy method to validate your form fields using annotations in the action class. 
    Two annotations are needed,
    1. The @Validation annotation tells to Struts that action in this class might need to be validated. 
    2. The @RequiredStringValidator annotation is used for the text input to hold a singular value. 
    Rest of the care is taken by the framework.

    Our "AnnotationAction"  class is saved in the "webapps\struts2tutorial\WEB-INF\src\java\net\roseindia" directoy. Here is the code of action class:
    In this class we will write the code to validate the login page. 

package net.roseindia;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.annotations.*;

public class 
AnnotationAction extends ActionSupport {

private String username = null;
private String password = null;


@RequiredStringValidator(message="Supply name")
public String getUsername() {

 return username;

void setUsername(String value) {

    username = value;
@RequiredStringValidator(message="Supply password")

public String getPassword() {

void setPassword(String value) {
password = value;


public String execute() throws Exception {
("Validating login");
if(!getUsername().equals("Admin"|| !getPassword().equals("Admin")){
  addActionError("Invalid user name or password! Please try again!");
return ERROR;
return SUCCESS;
  1. Configuring action mapping (in struts.xml)
    Now we will create action mapping in the struts.xml file. Here is the code to be added in the struts.xml:
    <action name="LoginAnnotation">

    <action name="AnnotationAction" class="net.roseindia.AnnotationAction">
    <result name="input">/pages/log-in.jsp</result>
    <result name="error">/pages/log-in.jsp</result>

    In the above mapping the action "LoginAnnotation" is used to display the login page and "AnnotationAction" validates the user using action class (

  2. CSS file (main.css)
    This css file is used to enhance the presentation of the login form. The main.css is saved into "\webapps\struts2tutorial\css" directory.
    Here is the code of main.css:

    @CHARSET "UTF-8";

    body {
    font: 12px verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;

    table.wwFormTable {
    font: 12px verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
    border-width: 1px;
    border-color: #030;
    border-style: solid;
    color: #242;
    background-color: #ada;
    width: 30%;

    table.wwFormTable th {

    table.wwFormTable tr td {
    background-color: #dfd;
    margin: 5px;
    padding: 5px;

    .tdLabel {
    border-width: 1px;
    border-color: #afa;
    border-style: solid;
    font-weight: bold;
    align: top;

    .label {

    .errorMessage {
    color: red;
    font-size: 0.8em;

    #headerDiv {
    border-style: solid;
    border-width: 1px 1px 0px;
    border-color: black;
    padding: 5px;
    background-color: #7a7;
    /* height: 22px; */
    height: 1.8em;
    /* margin-bottom: 12px; */

    #buttonBar {
    border-width: 0px 1px 1px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-color: black;
    color: white;
    margin-bottom: 12px;
    background-color: #7a7;
    height: 1.6em;
    padding: 5px;

    #appName {
    color: white;
    font-size: 1.8em;

    #pageTitle {
    font-size: 1.4em;
    color: #dfd;
    clear: none;

    #appName, #pageTitle {
    float: right;

    #menuContainer {
    float: left;

    #brandingContainer {
    float: right:
    text-align: right;

Compiling the application

To compile the application go to "\webapps\struts2tutorial\WEB-INF\src" directory and type ant command. The ant tool will compile the application for you.

Adding the link into index.html

Finally we add the link in the index.html to access the login form. 

<li><a href="roseindia/LoginAnnotation.action">Action Annotation Example</a></li>


If you click Login button without filling the fields, you will get the output pages as :

If you fill only the "Login name" field and click Login button without filling the next fields, you will get  the output pages as :

If you fill  the wrong information  and  click the Login button, you will get  the output pages as :

If you fill  the correct information  and  click the Login button, you will get  the output pages as :




  1. Validations using Struts 2 Annotations
  2. Struts 2 Features
  3. Struts 2 - History of Struts 2
  4. Struts 2 Architecture - Detail information on Struts 2 Architecture
  5. Download and Installing Struts 2
  6. Struts 2 Hello World Application Example, Learn how to develop Hello World application in struts 2.
  7. Developing JSP, Java and Configuration for Hello World Application
  8. Struts Configuration file - struts.xml
  9. Introduction to Struts 2 Tags
  10. Struts2 Actions
  11. Static Parameter
  12. Accessing Session Object
  13. Access Request and Response
  14. Control Tags-If / Else If / Else
  15. Append Tag (Control Tags) Example
  16. Generator Tag (Control Tags) Example
  17. Generator Tag (Control Tags) Using Count Attributes
  18. Generator Tag (Control Tags) Using an Iterator with Id Attributes
  19. Iterator Tag (Control Tags) Example
  20. Merge Tag (Control Tags) Example
  21. Subset Tag (Control Tags) Example
  22. Subset Tag (Control Tags) Example Using Count
  23. Subset Tag (Control Tags) Example Using Start
  24. Action Tag (Data Tag) Example
  25. Bean Tag (Data Tag) Example
  26. Date Tag (Data Tag) Example
  27. Include Tag (Data Tag) Example
  28. Param Tag (Data Tag) Example
  29. Set Tag (Data Tag) Example
  30. Text Tag (Data Tag) Example
  31. Property Tag (Data Tag) Example
  32. Checkbox Tag (Form Tag) Example
  33. Checkboxlist Tag (Form Tag) Example
  34. Datetimepicker Tag (Form Tag) Example
  35. Doubleselect Tag (Form Tag) Example
  36. File Tag (Form Tag) Example
  37. Form Tag Example
  38. Label Tag (Form Tag) Example
  39. Optiontransferselect Tag (Form Tag) Example
  40. Optgroup Tag (Form Tag) Example