Project management knowledge areas include all the aspects of the project management that are required for the successful completion of a project on time with the best output. The project management knowledge areas are defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), which is a collection of all the process, procedures and knowledge areas that has been accepted as the best and the most effective practices for project management.
As an internationally recognised standard (IEEE Std 1490-2003) has provided the fundamentals of a project management applicable for all the types of projects whether it be construction, software, engineering, automotive it provides the fundamentals of project management, irrespective of the type of project be it construction, software, engineering or automotive.
PMBOK has recognised five fundamental basic process area and nine knowledge areas for the successful completion of a project of all types. The 5 processes are:
In addition to that, the 9 knowledge areas includes:
These processes are generally described and evaluated in terms of three terms:
Let us discuss all the knowledge areas in brief:
Project Integration Management
This is the initial phase of any project, which involves the processes required to coordinate the project elements properly. An effective project integration management includes project plan development, project plan execution and integrated change control.
Project Scope Management
This is also a subset of project management that includes all the processes required to determine that the project includes all the works required within the project for the successful completion of the project. This involves basically five steps: Initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification and scope change control.
Project Time Management
This is one of the most important parts of a project management that ensures the timely completion of the project in a successful way by effective time management. The process of project time management includes activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimation, schedule development and schedule control.
Project Cost Management
Every project has some budget limitations. Project cost management is required to ensure that all the activities of the project are completed within the estimated budget and ultimately the final output of the project comes within the approved budget. The process of project cost management involves resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting and cost control.
Project Quality Management
Quality is the vital part of any project. Project quality management ensures that all the processes are carried out effectively in order to satisfy the quality parameters of the project for which it has been undertaken. An effective quality management consists of quality planning, quality assurance and quality control.
Project Human Resource Management
A project requires a number of skilled human resources for its successful completion. Project human resource management ensures the effective and deficient use of the manpower involved in the entire project life cycle. An effective project management includes organisational planning, staff acquisition and team development.
Project Communications Management
An effective and constant communication between the developers and stakeholders is very essential for success of any project and to avoid any conflict. Project communication management is done to make sure that there is timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage, and ultimate disposition of project information. This involves communication planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.
Project Risk Management
Completion of a project is a lengthy and complex phenomenon and a number of risks are likely to occur during the project life cycle. Project risk management helps to minimize the risk factors by identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risks effectively. Moreover, it stimulates the probability of getting the positive consequences of the risks and minimizes the probability and consequences of adverse events to project objectives. Project risk management involves risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning and risk monitoring and control.
Project Procurement Management
The entire project involves a huge investment that can be controlled with the help of effective purchase system. Project procurement management includes the processes that are required for the acquisition goods and services to attain the project scope from outside the performing organization. This includes procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection and contract administration.