Project Human Resource Management is the process of utilizing all the individuals involved in the project effectively in order to get the best result for the project. This includes all the stakeholders of the project including the sponsors, customers, individual contributors, and all others. Basically, an effective project human resource management involves three steps. These are:
All the process runs in close interaction with each other as well as with the other knowledge areas as per the need of the project. Let us discuss all the process involved in project human resource management in brief:
Organizational planning the initial phase of project human resource management which includes identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting. The roles, responsibilities and reporting may be assigned to single person or to a group of individuals depending upon the requirement of the work. The roles and responsibilities are defined for both the internal as well as the external groups who are involved in the project. The internal groups are assigned their functions in the specific departments such as engineering, marketing, purchase or accounting as per the skills of the individuals.
Most of the organizational planning is done at the beginning of the project in most of the cases. However, the organisational planning is reviewed periodically to find if any modification is needed with the progress of the project.
Project interfaces: Project interfaces are usually divided into three categories:
All the interfaces should run simultaneously in close interaction and coordination with each other.
Staffing requirements defines the requirement for the individuals for the different works of the project as per the skills and time frame. This is a part of over all resource planning.
Constraints are the limiting factors for a project that limits the options for the members of the project team. Some of the major constraints in project human resource management are:
Tools and Techniques for Organizational Planning
Though all the projects are different from each other, even though most of the projects have some similarity with other some other projects. This resemblance can help in defining the role and responsibility and reporting relationship in organisational planning.
Human resource practices:
Usually every organisation has a set of defined policies, guidelines, and procedures to help the project manager for making an effective organisational planning.
Various organisational theories are available to support the effective designing of an organisational structure and the project management team should be familiar with the theories as per the project requirements.
A detailed study of the needs of the stakeholders should be done in order to fulfill their expectations.
Outputs from Organizational Planning
Role and responsibility assignments:
Role and responsibilities of each and every individual associated with the project is assigned properly depending upon their skills and efficiency. The roles should be assigned as per the scope definition. A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is generally used for this purpose.
Staffing management plan:
The staffing management plan is required to decide when and how much human resource is required at what time frame for which work. This plan can be formal or informal and broadly defined depending upon the need of the project plan.
An organization chart is a graphical representation of project reporting relationships that can be formal or informal depending upon the need of the project.
Supporting detail for organizational planning may vary according to the application areas and project size. The supporting details can be the organisational impact, job descriptions and the training needs depending upon the need.
Staff acquisition is the process of acquiring the human resources as per the requirements of the project. The project management team must take care of the fact that the best man meeting the criteria for the work should be selected as far as possible.
Inputs to Staff Acquisition
Staffing management plan:
A proper planning for assigning the work to every individual in the project team is done in staffing management plan.
Staffing pool description:
After assigning the tasks to the team or individuals it must be considered that, how many staffs are potentially available. The considerations should be made based on the previous experience, personal interests, personal characteristics and availability of staffs selected.
Recruitment practices are the constraints to a project that involves various policies, guidelines, or procedures governing staff assignments.
Tools and Techniques for Staff Acquisition
Negotiation is an integral part of a project and the project management may need to negotiate with the functional managers in order to ensure that the project requirement for skilled staff is met on time. In addition to that, negotiation is also done with other project management team for assigning the specialized resources appropriately.
In some cases, especially in case of competitive proposals and when some staffs were promised to be a pert of the project, the staffs may be pre-assigned for the project. In addition to that, if the staff assignments are been determined as an internal service project then also the staffs is pre-assigned.
Project procurement management is much needed to get the right quality of product in right amount, at right place in right cost on right time as per the requirements of the project.
Outputs from Staff Acquisition
Project staff assigned:
The project is properly staffed by assigning appropriate works to all the individuals involved in the project as per the need of the project.
Project team directory:
A project team directory contains the list of all the individuals associated with the project.
Team development involves making different teams by dividing all the individuals involved in the project as per their skills and knowledge in order to stimulate the productivity of the work to get the maximum outcome. The team may be made on based on the technical and managerial aspects. Team development for a specific project management is a complex phenomenon as it a dual reporting system in which the team members has to report to both functional manager and project manager.
Inputs to Team Development
Project staffing id done in order to define the specific tasks of the team members depending upon the individual skills and team skills.
The project plan is the outlay of all the activities that are to take place during the entire project cycle.
Staffing management plan:
The staffing management plan is required is done in order to decide when and how much human resource is needed at what time frame for which work.
Performance reports are the helpful in providing adequate feedback to measure the project performance against project plan.
External feedback is taken in order to know whether the ongoing work in sufficient in order to meet the expectations of the project or not.
Tools and Techniques for Team Development
Team-building activities is required in order to improve the performance of the project team with the help management and individual efforts. Moreover, actions from the non?management-level team members are also required for this. Team building activities are short term in nature and can vary frequently as per the need.
General management skills:
The project management team should be aware of the various general management skills that play an important role in team development and stimulating the team performance.
Reward and recognition systems:
Reward and recognition systems play an important role in motivating the team members and enhancing the work performance by rewarding them as per their achievements.
Collocation is the placement of all the team members at a single place enhances the work performance of the members of the project as a team. This process is mostly used in the larger project but the some smaller projects also implements this.
Training involves all activities designed in order to enhance the skills, knowledge, efficiency and capabilities of members of the project in order to get the maximum outcome. Training can be formal or informal in nature depending upon the need. For example, training is given to the project team if any new technology is integrated to upgrade the project activity.
Outputs from Team Development
An effective team development enhances the amount as well as quality of the outcome of the project by improving the project performance. The improvement can be in individual skills or in team behavior.
Input to performance appraisals:
Team development defines the work performance of a team or an individual of the team and hence helps in deciding the performance appraisal based on the performance of the team or individual.