As 4 P's of marketing mix was basically a product oriented model, Robert F. Lauter born in 1993 proposed a 4 Cs classification model that is a consumer-oriented and more focussed towards niche marketing instead of mass marketing. It can be said that 4 C's concept is a consumer-oriented version of 4 P's concept.
The 4 C's of marketing mix include:
The 'Product' of 4P is replaced by 'Consumer' in the 4C concept that lays more emphasis on the satisfying the consumer needs and more inclined towards understanding the consumer needs more specifically and provide services accordingly. Thus it believes in providing custom solution to the consumers rather than a generic solution.
Price is replaced by "Cost" that follows the principle of total cost ownership. A lot of factors affect the cost of the product or services, which is not limited to the customer's cost only.
Promotion is replaced by "Communication" which suggests a broader sense of promotional activities. Communication involves advertising, public relations, personal selling, viral advertising, and any form of communication between the organization and the consumer.
Place is replaced by "convenience", that not only represents the retailers but has a broader sense. This indicates providing the customers with ease of getting the services through various possible means of purchasing.